Kamboja - An Ancient Country of India


Kamboja  - An Ancient Country of India

Kamboja (Sanskrit: ??????? ???????) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian (????) Kshatriya (????????) tribe (??????), the Kambojas, settled therein. The country is listed as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas or great nations in ancient Buddhist texts, and was located in the Uttarapatha in extreme north-west of the Indian sub-continent, contiguous to the kingdom of Gandhara. It initially included the Pamir Mountains|Pamirs, Badakshan, and territories as far as the Zeravshan valley in the doab of Oxus/Jaxartes. It approximated what is known today as the Galcha speaking region of Central Asia. Later, some sections of the trans-Hindu Kush (?????????) Kambojas moved to southern side of the Hindukush and planted colony|colonies in Kunar, Swat (Pakistan)|Swat and as far as Rajauri in Kashmir. The Kambojas are attested to have had Indian as well as Iranian affinities Vedic Index I, p 138, Dr Macdonnel, Dr Keith. Ethnology of Ancient Bharata – 1970, p 107, Dr Ram Chandra Jain. The Journal of Asian Studies – 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.). Balocistan: siyasi kashmakash, muz?mirat va ruj?anat – 1989, p 2, Munir A?mad Marri. India as Known to Pa?ini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ash?adhyayi – 1953, p 49, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala. Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet. Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.. ==Related Uses==

  • Camboja is the Portuguese language|Portuguese name for Cambodia.
  • Kamboja is also the Indonesian name for Cambodia.
  • Kamboja also refers to:
    1. The prince of the Kamboja Nation or TribePanini, IV.1.168-175..
    2. A descendant of the Kamboja KshatriyasPanini, IV.1.168-175..
    3. A horse raised and bred in ancient Kamboja (also Kambojaka, Kamboji) See: Halayudh Kosha''..
    4. An elephant native to, or coming from, Kamboja (also Kambu) See: Nanaratha.manjari''-421..
    5. ''Silver or gold native to, or coming from Kamboja (also Kambu).
    6. Name of a conch or shell native to Kamboja (also Kambu).
    7. Name of Supari or Punnag (Rottleria tinctoria) native to or coming from Kamboja see: Shabd.rattan.samanyavakosha''..
    8. Name of Somavalak or Karanj native to or coming from Kamboja See: Shabd.rattan.samanyavakosha''.
    9. Name of Ayurvedic herbal medicine Mashaparni and Hingparni, imported from Kamboja (also called Kamboji) See: Shabd.rattan.samanyavakosha''.
    10. Name of an ancient Raaga/Raagini (musical mode) originated in Kamboja country (??????? ???) (also called Kamboji, Kambhoji or Kambodi & Kambhodi). See Kambhoji
    11. A gold or silver bracelet, or bracelet in general (also Kambu).
    12. Name of a mountain located in ancient Kamboja (Afghanistan), famous for its Kambu or Kambuka silver''Kautiliya Arthashastra, 02.13.10. Sixty years of the Numismatic Society of India, 1910-1971, History and Presidential Address, Numismatic Society of India, 1973. Tribes Coins & Study, 1972, p 274, Dr Mahesh Kumar Sharma, University of Magadha. The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 76, K. S. Dardi. Kushana Silver Coinage, 1982, p 61, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee. Technology of Indian Coinage, 1988, p 72, P. K. D. Lee, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, Indian Museum.. Silver mines of Anderab, Wakhan and other locations in Badakshan were noted during Arabic ruleGeographical and Economical Studies in the Mahabharata, Upayana Parava, Journal of U.P. Historical Research Society, Vol XVI, Part II, p 46, Dr. Moti Chandra.. Therefore, Kambu appears to be the name of a range of the Hindukush mountains in south-east Badakshan.
    13. Kamboji: the language of the ancient Kambojas.
==Some Space/Time Variants of "Kamboja"==
  • Kaampoja (as in Mahabharata).
  • Kaamboja (as in the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Vedic civilization|Vedic literature etc., hence Kaamboj). For few more variations of Kaamboja, see [http://www.msc.uky.edu/sohum/sanskrit/docs/sanshab.txt]
  • Kambhoja (Southern Indian texts, as in Kautiliya's Arthashastra, hence Kambhoj).
  • Kaambhoja (in Southern Indian versions of ancient Sanskrit texts, hence Kaambhoj).
  • Kumbhoja (same as Kambhoja''; name of an ancient town in Maharashtra; also, the name of an ancient Kamboja sage referenced in some recensions of the Ramayana).
  • Camboja (common variant spellings).
  • Kambuja (as in dakshinatah Kambujaa.naam Vasisthaa.naam'': See Paraskara Grhya-Sutram 2.1.23).
  • Kamvoja same as Kamboja.
  • Kamvuja same as Kambuja.
  • Kambuj (from Kambuja, like a Kamboj is from Kamboja).
  • Kaanboja (a variant of Kamboja''; See Triya Chritra 217/verse 14 of Chritropakhyana of Dasam Granth; Hence Kaanboj. See also pages 21-23 of [http://www.gobindsadan.org/institute/dasam/pdf/v5_1.pdf]).
  • Kanboj (variant of Kamboj).
  • Kanbuj (as in a coin: Kharal-putras Kanbuj Raspag'': See Bharat ke Prachin Mudrank, by Swami Om Nand ji Sarasvati, 1973, Rohtak. Apparently Kanbuj is a variant of Kambuj/Kambuja, since m easily becomes n in Indo-Aryan languages, e.g Kambujiya = 'Kanbujiya).
  • Cambuja (Variant spellings of Kambuja).
  • Kamboza (As in the name of the Kamboza-thadi Palace of Bayintnaung, Myanmar).
  • Kamodza, (as in Kamodza-radza referenced in the tenth century Sanskrit-Tibetan Formulary )Editor J. Hacklin, Formulair sanskrit-tibetain du xe siecle, 59, 1.16; See also Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, p 66, Dr H. W. Bailey..
  • Kamoz, Caumoje, Camoje (Pushtu names for a clan of the Siah-Posh Kafirs of the Hindukush).
  • Kamtoz (also Kamtoj'''; Another Pushtu name for a Katir clan of the Siah-Posh Kafirs of the Hindukush). Said to be a variant of Kamboz).
  • Kambu, as the name of an Asura, said to be a descendant of Hiranyakasipu. He falls in the fifth line of his generationThe Geographical Information in the Skanda-pura?a: Based on the Tirtha-yatra Portion, 1979, p 184, Umakant Thakur, Umesh Jha.
  • Kambu, as in the name of an Asura clan, in conflict with Vedic Aryans, as referenced in Markendeya Purana Markendeya Purana 8.1-6., Devi MahatamDevi Mahatama 5.28.1-12..
  • Kambu, as in the name of a learned prince who ventured into Mekong valley, married a local maiden Mera and laid the foundation of Kambuja (Kamboja) empire in Indo China.
  • Kaaboja (See Luders' Inscriptions No 176, 472. It references one Kamboja Buddhist Bhikshu from Nandinagar making presents for a Buddhist Stupa)..
  • Kabojha or Kabojhiya or Kabhojika (In ancient Sinhalese language|Sinhalese cave inscriptions) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Kambojas/removed#KAMBOJA_SRI-LANKA_CONNECTIONS].
  • Khamboja or Khaamboja (Sometimes) erroneous spellings of Kamboja or Kaamboja.
  • Khambhoja or Khaambhoja (erroneous spellings of Kambhoja or Kaambhoja, southern Indian version).
  • Khamboj (from Khamboja).
  • Kamboda, Kambhoda (alternative name for Kamboja or Kambhoja Raga; also Kambodi or Kambhodi).
  • Kambhoji (Southern Indian form of Kamboji).
  • Kambojaka or Kambojika (Buddhist texts). Native of or loyal to Kamboja. A Kamboja daughter or maiden E.g: "A lovely girl in the flower of youth, robed in yellow, 'Kambhojika' (=Kambojika) of the beautiful hair, searching everywhere in the forest with her maids, the thought of her lover makes her weep with tenderness" (ref: Siva.tattva.ratnakara v. 6.8.99). See link: [http://www.loc.gov/folklife/guides/SouthAsian.html]..
  • Kambhojaka or Kambhojika (Southern Indian spellings of Kambojika or Kambojaka).
  • Kamboika, (from Kambojika== > Kamboyika== >Kamboika), Kamboi is the name of a "landlocked port" town in Gujarat. Tenth century Grant records of Chalukya rulers show it as Kamboika See Indian Antiquary VI, 1877, pp 191-92. The name is said to be a corruption of Pali Kambojika or Kambojaka (see above).
  • Kapishi of Panini's Ashtadhyayi Sutra iv-2-99 of Ashtadhyayi (equivalent to Kamboja, as in the Ramayanamanjri by Pt Kshmendra of Kashmir.)
  • Kau-fu (equivalent to Kambu, the Kamboja of Hiun Tsang) According to Dr J. W. McCrindle, Dr. R. K. Mukerjee, Dr. B. C. Law and others.
  • Kieu-feou (name of Kamboja in the Chinese language|Chinese recension of Tathagata Grhya-Sutra (Ratnakutsangraha)).
  • Kipin, ancient Chinese name for Kapisa (Kai-pi-shi(h)) of Hiuen Tsang Si-yu-ki, Kapishi (q.v.) of Panini Sutra iv-2-99 of Ashtadhyayi which according to scholars, is an alternative name for Kamboja See: Epigraphia Indica, Vol XIX-1, p 11, Indian Antiquary, 203, 1923, p 52; Indian historical quarterly, Vol XXV-3, 1949, pp 190-92; The Indian Historical Quarterly - Page 291 1963; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 120, Sylvain LÚvi, Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Kathakasankalanam: amskrtagranthebhyah sangrahitani Kathhakabrahmana, 1981, P xii, Surya Kanta etc. According to History and Culture of Indian People Vol II (p 122), Vol III (p 617) also, Kapisha is equivalent to Kamboja. Other scholars like Dr W. W. Taran, Dr Moti Chandra, Dr S. Chattopadhyaya, W. K. Fraser Tytler, M. C. Gillett, Donald N. Wilber, Bombay Gazetteer and others also hold that Kapisa and Kamboja are identical (See also: Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country,1981, pp 44-46, Dr J. L. Kamboj)..
  • Kophene = Kamboja...the name of Kabol valleyGazetteer of Bombay Presidency, Bombay, India, 1904, p 500, fn 6; Journal Asiatique, II, 1883, 3, n 3, Specht..
  • Kam-po-ce or Kam-po-ji (name of Kamboja in the Tibetan language|Tibetan recension of Tathagata Grhya-Sutra (Ratnakutsangraha)''.
  • Kan-po-chih as in the writings of Chinese traveller Chou Ta-kuan (1296 A.D.)
  • Kampu-chih (ancient Burmese name for Kamboja.)
  • Kamuia, Kamuio(See Inscriptions A2, A3, E1/E' of Mathura Lion Capital).. See also: [http://depts.washington.edu/ebmp/etext.php?cki=CKI0048].
  • Kambocha or Kamboca'''(as in Ashoka's Rock Edicts of Bhubneshwar, Orissa)..
  • Kambosh (as in the Chidambram inscriptions of Tamil-Nadu.)
  • Kaboa (a Kamboja)Chilas: The City of Nanga Parvat (Dyamar), 1983, pp 120,247, Ahmad Hasan Dan.i.
  • Kaboja (as in ancient Sinhalese language|Sinhalese and Malwa inscriptions)See: Reports, 1880, p 58, Archaeological Survey of India, India Archaeological Survey; Buddhism in Malwa, 1976, p 68, S. M. Pahadiya; also in Luders Inscriptions. See: The Indian Historical Quarterly , 1963, p 127; Sinhalayo, 1970, p 14, S. (Senarat) Paranavitana); Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology in the Indian Ocean, 2002, p 108, David Parkin, Ruth Barnes
  • Kabusha (as in the Buddhist text Mahamayuri) See also Indian Antiquaries, 52, part 2, 1923, S Levi.
  • Kabuj The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1831, p 500, Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain), Norton Shaw, Hume Greenfield, Henry Walter Bates. Also See Triya Chritra 217/verse 14 of the Charitropakhyana of Dasam Granth Sahib''. Dasam Granth attests the term Kabuj as well as Kaanboj''..
  • Kalbhoj (as in the name of prince Kalbhoj, eighth ruler of the Guhilot Dynasty and founder of the Mewar Dynasty of Rajasthan. Probably a variant of Kambhoj, since in Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan languages, the consonant M can easily interchange with N and then L)'''Kalbhoj vs Kambhoj (or Kamboj)
  • .The name Kalbhoj appears to be a corruption/variant of Sanskrit Kambhoj.
  • (i) In Indo-Aryan languages, in certain forms, the consonant "M" can change to consonant "N". Some instances:GaMdhara = GaNdhara; SaMskrit = SaNskrit; KaMbujiya = KaNbujiya; SaMgha = SaNgha; AMdhra = Andhra; ApabhraMsha = ApabhraNsha; SaMskara = SaNskaraThus, KaMboj becomes KaNboj (as in Dasam Granth)[http://www.gobindsadan.org/institute/dasam/pdf/v5_1.pdf].OR KaNbuj (as in the coins: Kharal-putras KaNbuj Raspag: See Bharat ke Prachin Mudrank, by Swami Om Nand ji Sarasvati, 1973, Rohtak.Apparently, the terms KaNboj/KaNbuj are variants of KaMboj/KaMbuj, since "M" can become "N" in Indo-Aryan languages. Also compare KaMbujiya = KaNbujiya of ancient Persian/Susian inscriptions).
  • (ii) There are numerous instances where consonant "L" can replace or interchange with consonant "M". Some Instances:PuNinda = PuLinda; KuNinda = KuLinda; PahLava = PahNava (Puranas); ANimadra = ALimadra (Puranas); SthaNa = SthaLa; SthuNa = SthuLa (Pali text Mahavagga, 8.12.2); MeNandra = MiLinda; MarusthaNa = MarusthaLa; KalibaNa = KalivaLa; KoNiserpa = KoLiserpa; Kaphina = Kaphila (also Kapphina, Kapphilla, Kaphila, Kamphilla; name of a disciple of the Buddha); Nil = Lil (Indigo); GardabhiN = GardabhiL (a dynasty of Saurashtra); PuNika =PuLika (Father of king Pradyota of Avanti, contemporary of Buddha. See Ancient India, 2003, p 247, Dr V. D. Mahajan); HariaLa =HariaNa (Ancient name of Haryana); SihasivaNi= sihasivaLi (queen of king Sihabahu of Latadesa, Capital Sinhapura); MauNa = MauLa (Mauna is the name of tribe in Puranic literature. See Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol I, 2002, p 189-90. The same name is found as MauLa in Bhagvata Purana).Thus, it is very probable that term Kalbhoj is a time/space variant of Sanskrit Kamboj or Kambhoj..
  • Komdei (a Ptolemy|Ptolemian name for Komuda dvipa (?) or Komed or Komdesh or Kamdesh (?); from Kambodesh (?), probably "Kambojdesh" '''See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, pp 46-47, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 59, S Kirpal Singh''.. Ptolemy|Ptolemian Komdei is Kiumito or Kumito of Hiun Tsang and Kumed or Kumadh of the Muslim writers, Kiumiche of Wu'kong, Kumi of T'ang and Cambothi, Kambuson and Komedon of Greek writers. Al-Maqidisi in his book Al-Muqhni calls the people of this territory as Kumiji which apparently is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboj. The root Kam of the Sanskrit name Kamboja is also reflected in the Kama valley, a region lying between the Khyber Pass and Jalalabad; in the place names like Kama'''-daka, Kamma'''-Shilman, Kama'''-bela of Kabol; in the Kamdesh or Kambrom, Kamich, Kama and Kamu & Kamatol of the Kunar and Bashgul valleys; and also in the vast expanses of region called Kazal-'''Kam and Kara-'''Kam lying on either side of the Oxus, north of Hindukush. The Ptolemy|Ptolemian terms Kamoi and Komdei exactly also refer to the Trans-Hindukush territories which region is what Mahabharata Mahabharata 2.27.25. refers to as Parama Kamboja i.e a Kamboja lying beyond the Kamboja of Kabol valley )''The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 92, 59, S Kirpal Singh; These Kamboj People, 1979, 67, K. S. Dardi; cf: History of Punjab, Vol I, p 182, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh''..
  • Kamma A medieval warrior community located in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh with possible links to Kamboja-Pallava migration. See Kamma (caste).
  • Kamboya or Kamboy i.e Kambo (modern Kamboh'''; Shahbazgarhi Edicts of king Ashoka; also in Jain canon Uttaradhyana-Sutra 11/16.)
  • Kambay (or Cambay; Kambaet; Khambat; Khambayat; Khambavat; Khambavati--- the Kambaya/Kanbaya of the Arab geographers). According to many scholars, the name Cambay/Cambay|Kambay (Khambat/Kambat) is also connected with the Kambojas and it is an Apbhransh of Sanskrit KambojaEpigraphia Indica, Vol XXIV, pp 45-46; Vangar Jatya Itihaas, Rajanya Kanda (in Bengali,), Nagendra Nath Vasu; The Spirit of Islam Or the Life and Teachings of Mohammad: or the life and teachings of Mohammed, 2002, p 359, Ameer Ali Syed; Asiatick Researches: Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal, for Inquiring Into the..., 1801, p 129, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India); Encyclopedia of Religions Or Faiths of Man 1906, 2003 Edition, p 282, J. G. R. Forlong; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 232, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Published 1990, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal, Asiatic Society [etc.]; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 305, 332; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 161, 216; Kim (by Rudyard Kipling - 1901), Chapter XI, Page 266, line 23, Notes on the text by Sharad Keskar; cf: Ancient India, 1956, p 383, Dr R. K. Mukerjee..
  • Kamboi & Kamoi (as in some ancient Sikh writings, like those of Giani Gian Singh. cf Kamboy of Ashoka's Shabaazgarhi Edicts).
  • Kamboh or Kanboh (as in medieval Muslim writings)
  • Kambuh or Kanbuh (variants of Kamboh/Kanboh''. In medieval Muslim writings).
  • Kambho (obviously from Kambhoj).
  • Kaubenj (in Arab Geography)The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1831, p 500, Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain), Norton Shaw, Hume Greenfield, Henry Walter Bates.
  • Kumbho (same as Kambho, obviously from Kumbhoj).
  • Kumboh As in The Martial Races of India, p 251, Sir George Fletcher MacMunn. Same as Kamboh''..
  • Kamo ("Ultra-prakrit/vulgate" form of Kamboj, used in the illiterate circles of Punjab region|Panjab).
  • Komoi (a Ptolemian name for a tribe north of Bactria/Badakshan in Central Asia. Perhaps from Kamboi, which may be an alternative of Kamboika / Kamboyika /Kambojika).
  • Tambyzoi: a Ptolemy|Ptolemian name for a region and people on Oxus, in Bactria, north of Hindukush, said to be a poor transliteration of Sanskrit Kamboja (Dr. S Levi)Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Dr Sylvain LÚvi, Dr Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, K. D. Sethna; Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1956, p 37; Purana, Vol VI, No 2, Jan 1964, pp 207-208; Journal of the Asiatic Society , 1956, p 88, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal); Geographical Data in the Early Pura?as: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165, Dr M. R. Singh; Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert - History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold; Purana-vimar'sucika -: Bibliography of Articles on Puranas, 1985, p 133, P. G. Lalye.
  • Ambautai (from Kambautai), a Ptolemian transliteration for Kamboja, a people/region in Paropamisadae, south of Hindukush (Dr. M. Witzel) See Refs: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, Vol. 5,1999, issue 1 (September), Dr. M. Witzel; Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, 2005, p 257, Laurie L. Patton, Edwin Bryant; The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy; Linguistic Aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory, Part I, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See Link: [http://koenraadelst.bharatvani.org/articles/aid/keaitlin1.html]; The official pro-invasionist argument at last, A review of the Aryan invasion arguments in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See link: [http://koenraadelst.bharatvani.org/reviews/hock.html]..
  • Kambojan (an adjectival use of Kamboja)
  • Sanskrit Kamboja appears as
  • K.b.u.ji.i.y
  • , Kabujiya or perhaps Kabaujiya/'Kaboujiya and Kambujiya or perhaps Kambaujiya ( OR with -n- in place of -m- as Kanbujiya or Kanbaujiya) of Old Persian Empire|Persian inscriptions, and Cambyses of Greek language|Greek writings. The same name appears as C-n-b-n-z-y in Aramaic, Kambuzia in Assyrian, Kambythet in Egyptian language|Egyptian, Kam-bu-zi-ya or Ka-am-bu-zi-ya in Akkadian language|Akkadian, Kan-bu-zi-ia or Kan-bu-si-ya in Elamite, and Kanpuziya in Susa|Susian language cf: Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, p 69, Dr H. W. Bailey. It appears to have been quite a popular name among the ancient Iranians, of whom the ancient Kambojas are said to have formed a clan.

Deepak Kamboj

Deepak Kamboj started and conceptualized the powerful interactive platform - KambojSociety.com in September 2002, which today is the biggest and most popular online community portal for Kambojas in the world. He was inspired by the social and community work carried out by his father Shri Nanak Chand Kamboj. He has done research on the history, social aspects, political growth and economical situation of the Kamboj community. Deepak Kamboj is an author of various articles about the history of Kamboj community and people.