Kambojas in Muslim and British Era

KAMBOJAS in Muslim and British Era

ohs are said to be the modern representatives of ancient Kambojas. They are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Persians, Jaina and Buddhists and are mostly confined to northern parts of India, Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. The original home of the Kambojas was Pamir, Badakshan and northern parts of Tajikstan as far as Zeravshan in Central Asia. From time to time they are known to have entered South Asia and got assimilated into the local population. They have been followers of Zoroastrism, Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism in ancient times. With the advent of Islam in 5th/6th century AD and its later introduction into India, a section of Kamboj population switched to Islam. When the Muslim rule was established in India, the Kamboj people, like rest of the Indians, were also influenced by the new faith. The Ghaznavids period was marked by arrival in Punjab of the important spiritual figures like Hazrat Shaikh Ismail and Hazrat Ali Bin Osman popularly known as Data Ganj Baksh. They were successful in converting few of the Kamboj population to Islam (Tarikh-i-Sindh, by Ijazul Haq Quddusi). But the great pioneers of 13th century of the Sufi movement in South Asia were four friends known as Chahar Yaar, viz: (1) Hazrat Fariduddin Masud Ganj Shakar of Pak Pattan (1174-1266), (2) Hazrat Sayed Jalaluddin Bukhari of Uch-Bahawalpur (1196-1294), (3) Hazrat Bahauddin Zakaria of Multan (1170-1267) and (4) Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar of Sehwan (1177-1274). With their kind efforts, major sections of the numerous clans of Punjab like the Jats, Kamboj, Kharals, Tobians etc had embraced Islam. It is also notable that it were these Kamboj converts to Islam who had, for the convenience of the tongue, transformed the usual ancient Sanskrit and Persian word Kamboj into its current form Kamboh.

These Muslim Kamboj had interacted very favorably with the Lodhi, Pashtun and the Mughal rulers of India and through their hard work and personal abilities, many of them rose to great heights in civil and the military fields and became an important part of the ruling elite while others shone in the field of education and scholarship. Besides Muslim Kamboj, the Hindu Kamboj are also known to have contributed their share in the Mughal administration and management.

Muslim Kambohs (Kambojs) became especially influential and powerful during Mughal rule. General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh was the most trusted general of Akbar. [1]  Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the Sadar-i-Jahan in Akbar’s reign. [2] Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key civil and military positions through out the Mughal reign.

“The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high military and civil positions during Mughal rule”. [3] [4]

“The Indian Muslims, popularly known as Shaikhzadas, belonged largely to certain important clans like the Saiyids of Barha and the Kambohs” [5]

A. L. Basham writes: “The administrative reforms of Akbar changed the structure of even the Muslim leadership. The state was no longer the monopoly of the Mughals, or even the Iranis; the Afghans, and Indian Muslims such as Shaikhzadas, Saiyids, and Kambohs shared in its management. The hereditary status of a new entrant was an important consideration in assigning his first mansab, but promotion depended mainly upon talents and loyalty” [6].

Abu-Al-Fazal Alami, a prominent historian of the Akbar period, writes that it was a matter of honor to belong to the Kamboh  lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors Akbar and Jahangir and that no Kamboh was in economically bad circumstances in whole of India [7]

Saiyid Waris Shah had to say: “Although the rule of machines has depleted our feelings for one another, yet the Kamboh as a nation to this day is filled with passion” [8]

The Kambohs or Kambojs were classed among the ruling elites during the Muslim rule. [9]

The Moslem rule was a golden period for the Indian Kambojs [10].

There are numerous notable names of Muslim Kamboj in Indian history which can be mentioned here but more important of them are listed below and described for the knowledge of general readers.

Kamboj in Muslim Age

Muslim Kambohs

Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh

Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh was born in 1405 AD in Multan, now in Pakistan. His
father Maulana Shaikh Fakhrudin was a venerable religious leader of that period.
Makhdoom Shaikh Samayuddin was the royal spiritual adviser or Pir, first to emperor Behlol Lodhi,
and later to Sikandar Lodhi. He commanded greatest respect amongst the entire
Muslim spiritual and religious leaders of his time. The Mazar of Hazrat Shaikh
Samayuddin is located in Delhi where the Zubairies of Panipat used to assemble every
year for offering Fateha in pre-independence days.

Hazrat Shaikh Abdullah Biyabani Kamboh

Hazrat Shaikh Abdullah Biyabani Kamboh was the son of Hazrat Shaikh
Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh. For some reason, he got disillusioned
with the emperor of Delhi and retired to a life of seclusion. For eighty summers
and eighty winters of his life, Shaikh Biyabani lived in seclusion, in the
forests among the wild and ferocious animals, doing the bandagi of Allah. All
these years he fed himself only on roots, fruits and leaves of the forest trees.
He was dedicated Nimajee and performed five Nimaz (Salat) a day, without
exception, and also did one complete reading of the holy Quran every day, but never without
having taken showers. He lived over a hundred years of age. It is also stated
that he got endowed with some supernatural powers.

Shaikh Nasiruddin Delhvi

Shaikh Nasiruddin Delhvi was second son of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom
Samayuddin Kamboh, he was a teacher, educationist and a distinguished scholar of
the Shariyat. He occupied the office of Shaikh-ul-Aslam from the times of Sikandar Lodhi till Mughal emperor

Shaikh Is-haaq Kamboh

Shaikh Is-haaq Kamboh was brother of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom
Samayuddin Kamboh. Shaikh Is-haaq was Malak-Alamsayakh v Alhalama
according to the evidence furnished by Shaikh Jamali. He was a great scholar of Islam and of

Shaikh Yahya Khan Kamboh

Shaikh Yahya Khan Kamboh was bestowed the ruler ship of Aligarh by the Delhi emperor
which stayed with his descendants for long time. One of his descendants,
Muhammad Sayeed Khan, a Jagirdar of Kol (Aligarh), held a high rank in the army
under Shah
Jahan. His son Muzzahar Khan remained deputy-governor of Kashmir and Agra. Many of his descendants also
occupied very high civil and military ranks during the Mughal rule.

Shaikh Abdul Gafoor alias Ladan Khan

Shaikh Abdul Gafoor was son of Shaikh Nasirudin Kamboh. A renowned scholar
and philosopher himself, numerous of his students also turned out to be great
scholars and educationists.

Mufti Jamal Khan Kamboh

Mufti Jamal Khan Kamboh was second son of Shaikh Nasiruddin and brother of
Shaikh Abdul Gafoor. He remained Mufti (Judge) of Delhi during the reigns of Sikandar Lodhi, Babur, Humayun and Sher
Shah Suri and died in 1582 AD at the age of 90. He used to deliver Khutabas
and never paid visits to the emperor or the nobles. Rather, he always kept
company with the respectable magistrates, scholars and intellectuals. Numerous
of his students also became great intellectuals and scholars
(Muntakhabhu-I-Tawarikh, Al-Badaoni, Ed Wolseley Haig, Vol III, 1973, p

Shaikh Fateh Allah

Shaikh Fateh Allah was also a noted scholar and was greatly respected by the
emperors from Sikandar Lodhi through Sher
Shah Suri and the other high-ranking officers, courtiers and nobles. He was
the son of Shaikh Nasiruddin and grand son of respected Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh
Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh.

Nawab General Abu Muhammad Khan

Nawab General Abu Muhammad Khan grandson of Shaikh Abdul Gafoor. He was an
influential courtier of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and later of Aurangzeb. He
held a mansab of 1400 and had conquered Hoogly Bandar for the Crown. He
constructed one fort in Meerut which is still called after his name. He also
established one village called Abu Muhammad Pur after his name. Besides, he also
raised many works of public utility including the water pools, inns, mosques and
irrigation canals.

Nawab Saddullah Khan Chinioti

Nawab Saddullah Khan Chinioti was the prime minister of Mughal emperor Shah
Jahan. He had executed his office duties with great skill and

Shaikh Jamali Kamboh

Shaikh Jamali Kambohwas also known as Shaikh Hamid bin Fazlullah, Dervish
Jamali Kamboh Dehlwi or Jalal Khan. Jamali came from a Sunni merchant family of Kamboh
lineage but was initiated into Sufism by the respected teacher Hazrat Shaikh
Samayuddin Kamboh. Jamali was a noted Sufi of the Suhrawardiyya sect who died in
AD 1536 while accompanying the Mughal Emperor Humayun in the latter’s
expedition to Gujarat. He was married to the daughter of Hazrat Shaikh
Samayuddin Kamboh and was the tutor of Sultan Sikandar Lodi. He lived at
Mehrauli during the reign of Sultan Sikandar Lodi and later composed panegyrics
to the first of the Mughal emperor, Babur and his successor Humayun. A
great poet of Persian language, Jamali wrote Siyar-l-Arifin (completed
between AD 1530 and 1536) in Persian which is an account of the Chishti and
Suhrawardi Sufis
of the period. Shaikh Jamai died in 1536 AD and his tomb
and a mosque known as Jamali-Kamali is situated near the Qutab
Minar opposite the Ahinsa Sthal on Mehrauli’s bypass.

Shaikh Abdul Gadai Kamboh

Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the son of Shaikh Jamali Kamboh. After the second
defeat during the ‘exile at Gujarat’, Shaikh Gadai paid a visit to Khan-Khanan
and through his influence was appointed the Sadar-i-Sadur or
Sadar-i-Jahan (Administrator General) of Akbar in 1563 AD which office he
held till death in 1574 AD. The office of ‘Sadar-i-Jahan’ had been very
important before the times of Mughals and even during Akbar’s reign, he ranked
as the third or fourth most powerful officer in the empire. It was his legal
edict which legalized the accession of a new king. By the time of Akbar, the
office had however, become corrupt especially so in the administration of grants
& pensions and hence after assuming the office, the first thing Shaikh Gadai
did was to draw the pen of obliteration through the grants and pensions of old
servants of the crown so as to end the corruption ( Glossary of Tribes, p 499,
H. A. Rose). Numerous old grantees and pensionees were affected by this action
including probably chronicler Al-Badaonmi also and this seems to have earned the
wrath of the latter. Al-Badaonmi, accordingly, makes very vitriolic and personal
attacks on Shaikh Gadai, apparently annoyed of this drastic action. Emperor
Akbar however, had a great respect for Shaikh. Everyone in the
Darbar-a-Akbari was required to bow his head and shake his beard to pay
obeisance to emperor as he entered the court, but Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was an
exception. Rather, the emperor himself would come to the Shaikh to seek his
blessings. Shaikh Gadai Kamboh wielded immense powers in the matters of general
administration. He had unlimited powers to grant & take back the fiefs and
pass on or remit death sentences. He was the highest law officer and it was his
legal edict which legalized the accession of the king. He had undertaken
numerous reforms including the land reforms during his office tenure.
Al-Badaoni, the author of Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh, also writes that Shaikh
Gadai Kamboh had obtained the position of Sadar-a-Sadur. In the religious
matters, for many years Shaikh Gadai remained a very influential figure among
the Pirs and great religious leaders of India, Khorasan, Iran and the Central
Asian countries lying beyond the Oxus. He was a born poet and had
written numerous poetry in Persian language in a traditional style which he used
to sing in scholarly gatherings about which he was always very enthusiastic. The
Khan-Khanan and Akbar himself attended these singing parties (Mehfils) at Shaikh
Gadai’s palace which Al-Badaoni however, depreciates in severe terms. Shaikh
Gadai would regularly visit the Dargahs of Saints, Pirs & religious
philosophers and would arrange annual fairs on their ursa. Shaikh breathed his
last in 976 Hijri (1574/75). [11]

Shaikh Bahawuddin Kamboh

Not much is known about Bahawuddin Kamboh. He was however an important person
in Darbar-i-Akbari since emperor Akbar had deputed him as his
embassy to Yusuf Chak , the king of Kashmir, to persuade or force
the latter to come to an understanding with Akbar.

King Yusuf Chak

Chak is a well known clan among the modern Kamboj. The Chaks of Kashmir are not
its original inhabitants but are known to have migrated there from Daradistan.
Since in ancient times, the Daradas and Kambojas were next door
neighbors in the cis-Hindukush region,[12]
it is very likely that Yusuf Chak, the ruler of Kashmir and his dynasty, could
be traceable to ancient clan of the Kambojas living as
neighbors to the Daradas in/around Kashmir. It is a known fact of history that
ancient Kambojas had ruled over Kashmir during and prior to epic times[13].
So, it is very possible that the Chaks of Kashmir may not be of Daradic origin
but rather may have come from Kamboja background

Shaikh Abdul Aziz Kamboh

According to Muslim historian Wahabuddin Kamboh, Shaikh Abdul Aziz was Prime
Minister of emperor Ibrahim Lodhi [14].
But Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan advises further research to confirm that Abdul
Aziz indeed held the office of Prime Ministership (Tarikh-i-Quam Kamboh, p 309).
Historian H. S. Thind, S Kirpal Singh and other scholars write that Abdul Aziz
held the office of Prime Minishtership under emperor Ibrahim Lodhi.

Shaikh Abdulhaie Hyati

He was younger son of Shaikh Jamali and brother of Shaikh Gadai Kamboh. He
was the Musahib of emperor Salim Shah Suri (1550-1560 AD) which fact is also
confirmed by Al-Badaoni. Shaikh Hyati had very good relations both with Salim
Shah Suri as well as his father Sher Shah Suri. Shaikh
Hyati was a pastmaster in the arts of reciting latifas (titbits) and also wrote
many Qasidas in praise of the emperor. He is best known for his hospitality and
always played a host to students, poets and qulandaras from Iran, Turan and other trans-Oxian
countries who visited Delhi in India. He died at the
young age of 36.

Khan Jahan Amad-ul-Malik

He was Mir Adal (Judge) of emperor Sikandar Lodhi.

Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik Sambhal

In the struggle between Humayun and Sher
Shah Suri, Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik had sided with the latter and supported him
with all his resources. Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik had lost his brother in the battle
and later when Sher Suri ascended the throne of Delhi, he appointed Shaikh
Itmad-ul-Malik as his Mashir but soon promoted him to Prime Minister. Sher Shah
Suri and Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik are both responsible for the
rehabilitation/constriction of the Grand Trunk Road running between Peshawar and Calcutta. The
duo is also responsible for the construction of numerous wells, water pools,
hospitals and inns for the benefit of the general public. The well-to-do Muslim
Kambohj families of Sambhal trace their lineage from Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik. He
died at Sambhal and his tomb is still located there (Silsila Aliya, Anayat
Hussain Mahravi & Tarikh-i-quam Kamboh, Muhammad Yusuf Hasan, p 309).

Maulana Jaman Khan

He was the Hajab of emperor Sikandar Lodhi whom he had accompanied during his
campaign of Awgantar. The fort was reduced fort in 1511 AD and emperor Sikandar
appointed General Mujahid Khan as in charge of the fort. But later a conspiracy
came to light which involved both general Mujahid Khan and Maulana Jaman Kamboh.
Both were arrested on orders of the emperor and the charge of the fort handed
over to Tajuddin Kamboh.

Shaikh Khawaja Hasan Multani Kamboh

He originally belonged to Multan (in Pakistan) but had moved to Marehra
during reign of Sikandar Lodhi. Soon he
drew the attention of the emperor and impressed him greatly with his abilities
and competence. The emperor made Khawaja the ruler of Marehra. Muhammad Khan,
the grandson of Khawaja Hasan was married to the daughter of general Shabaz Khan
Kamboh, an illustrious General of emperor Akbar.

General Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh

Shaikh Hasham Khan was the grandson of Hazrat Shaikh Makhdoom Samayuddin. He
held a mansab of 2500 during reign of Mughal emperor Jahangir.

Nawab General Amadul Malik Kamboh

Amadul Malik was grandson of Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh. In the later years of Aurangzeb,
he was the chief judge of Lahore. During Bahadhur Shah’s
reign, Amadul Malik was appointed the governor of Multan. Nawab Amadul Malik held a
mansab of 5000 person.

Muhammad Akram Khan Kamboh

Was the chief justice of Delhi during the reign of emperor Aurangzeb.

Shaikh Sharif Khan

He was a senior minister in the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (History of

Muhammad Husain Kamboh

He was a high ranking officer in the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Mufti Mabu-al-Barkat

He came from the lineage of Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh. Was Judge of

Nawab Dadan Khan

He was from Kamboh family of Meerut. He remained Governor of Lahore for some time.

Shaikh Lali Kamboh

Was one of the famous nobles of Meerut. He was the author of Lala
of Meerut.

====Nawab General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh==== Shahbaz Khan was one of the most
trusted and ablest generals of Mughal emperor Akbar. His real
name was Shahrullah and his sixth ancestor was Haji Ismail, a disciple of the
renowned saint Bahauddin Zakariya of Multan. He had entered Mughal
service during the time of Akbar, drew his attention and was
elevated to the rank of Mir Tozak (Quarter-Master General) and later to an Amir.
In 1572 he was appointed Mir Bakhshi (Paymaster-General) and the title of
‘Shahbaz Khan’ was conferred on him. As a Mir Bakshi, Shabaz Khabn introduced
the system of Dag-o-mahali which had considerably cut down the over-heads
as well as the corruption in the military departments of the Crownr. During
21ist year of his service, Shahbaz Khan proceeded against Kalah Rai and Maldeo
Rai, the rebel Rathod Rajputs of Jodhpur and brought them under
control. He also attacked the fort of Daigur which resulted in the deaths of
numerous Rathods. Later, he also reduced the forts of Dunar and Siwanah and was
made commandant of these forts by the Crown. During 23rd year of his service,
Shahbaz Khan invaded Komelmer and subdued the pride of Rana Partap. Rana Partap
escaped in the disguise of an ascetic to avoid the further wrath of Shabaz Khan.
Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani and his brother Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani were Amir Viziers
in the court of Akbar and both were holding big Jagirs. But they rose in
rebellion against the crown. With the help of Shabaz Khan Khan, Akbar crushed
the rebellion with iron hand. General Khan Zanan-i-Shaibani was killed in the
battle but Bahadhur Khan was executed by Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai Bansi Das
Kamboh on orders of the Crown [15].
The princes of Goganda, and Udepore also submitted to him. Shahbaz Khan setup 50
police posts in mountainous regions and 30 in the plains to keep control over
the rebellious Rajputs. On 18 May 1583, he was appointed Governor of Bengal. Initially,
he had commanded 5000 men and had distinguished himself greatly in Bengal, but
later when operating in Brahmputra, he had commanded 9000 strong cavalry
(Aina-i-Akbari, Blochman’s trans, I, p 399-402). On 15 November 1583, he
defeated Masum Khan Kabuli and compelled him to flee to Bhati while Jabbari, an
ally of Masum Khan, fled to Kooch Bihar. In 1584, he led an expedition against
Isa Khan, initially achieved a considerable success and even ravaged Katrabo,
Khizirpur, Sonargaon and Egarasindhur but finally suffered a defeat in the
battle of Egarasindur and Bhawal and was forced to turn back to Tanda. With
reinforcements sent by Akbar, Shahbaz Khan again marched towards Bhati in 1586
and defeated Isa Khan and forced him to come to an understanding with the Crown.
In November 1586, Shahbaz Khan was appointed Bakhshi (Paymaster) of Bengal in
which capacity he served for two years before leaving Bengal in 1588. Shahbaz
Khan Kamboh had also subdued the pride of Raja Ram Chander Sain, Rai Surjan
Handa & Dauda, Raja Gajpati, Rana Sangram and the officers of Surat. He had
participated in some of the most difficult expeditions of emperor Akbar and much
of the territorial expansion of Akbar was due to General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh.
Shahbaz Khan was a very able and efficient General and his military division was
always found in excellent conditions. Shahbaz Khan died of illness on 11
November 1606 at Ajmer at the age of over 70 years.
He was then on a military expedition against the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Historian
Abu-L-Fazl Alami, the author of Aiana-i-Akbari, attests that Shahbaz Khan
was a very competent and capable General but Abu-L-Fazal also accuses him of his
Sunni fanaticism and arrogance. Many a
times, he strongly opposed the emperor, but Akbar had a great regard for Shahbaz
Khan and took it lightly. But once, the defiant Shabaz Khan had to be imprisoned
and was released only after two years. Emperor Akbar tried his best to bring
Shahbaz Khan and another General Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Khan Koka into his new
faith known as Din-i-Ilahi but the move was vehemently criticized both by
Shabaz Khan Kamboh as well as General Qutb-ud-din Khan. [16]>
This had created obstacles in his promotion upwards. On the other hand, many
incompetent and junior officers got promoted which they did not deserve. The
9000 strong cavalry of General Shabaz Khan is said to have comprised mostly the
Kamboj horsemen which included both the Muslim as well as the Hindu Kamboj soldiers.
The total annual expenses on his division was over 30 Lakh Indian Ruppees during
those times. Shahbaz Khan so much helped the Kamboj that no Kamboh was in
economically bad condition at that time (Abu-L-Fazl Alami). He left behind a
huge Jagir and treasure which was seized by Jahangir (Salim), son of Emperor

General Karam Allah

General Karam Allah was younger brother of Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and held a
mansab of 2000 during Akbar and Jahangir’s reign. He was very religious, pure
and clean person. He died in 1600 AD

General Ilham Allah

He was the son of Shahbaz Khan. Was Wasika Nawees at Baglana where he
died after some time.

General Ranbaz Khan

Was second son of Shahbaz Khan. According to Tozik-i-Jahangiri, (p
248), Ranbaz Khan held a mansab of 1200 person. During the thirteenth year of
his service, he was promoted as Wasika Nawees and Bakhshi
(General) when he held a Mansab of 5000 persons. He continued to hold this
position till 20th year of his service.

General Zainuddin Kamboh

General Zainuddin Kamboh son-in-law of Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and was a
sub-general under Amir Kutabbulla Khan (a 5000 mansabdar) which division had
fought against Sultan Muzaffar Gujarati. General Kutabbulla Khan was killed in
the battle and general Zainuddin Kamboh was arrested and tied to the feet of a
wild elephant and crushed to death on orders from Sultan Muzaffar Gujarati.

Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh

Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh a noble from Sambhal. He held the office of
Dewan-e-tan (Accountant General) under Shah Jahan. He performed the
duties of granting and taking back the grants and pensions and promoting or
demoting the officers of the Crown. Two of his sons also held the offices of
Dewan-e-tan and Dewan-e-Khals under Nawab Sadddula Khan Chanyoti (Kamboh). The
Muslim nobles of Meerut trace their lineage to Dewan-e-tan Shaikh Abdul Moman
Kamboh (Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, pp 313-314). Nawab Vakar Almalik Maulvi
Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh), a well-known Muslim leader of pre-independence days,
the founding father of Muslim League was also from the lineage of Shaikh
Abdul Moman Kamboh.

Abu Muhammad Multani

Was son of Shaikh Amad Multani. He was Amir Vizier in the court of Shah

Nawab Bahadhur Khan Meeruti

Was also an Amir Vizier in the court of Shah Jahan.

Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori

Was official biographer of the Emperor Shah Jahan and the teacher of
Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Little is known of
the life of Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori other than the works he composed. He is
stated to be younger brother of Inayat-Allah Kamboh and worked as
Shahi Dewan with Governor of Lahore. Muhammad Salih is best
remembered for his work Amal-i Salih, also referred to as Shah Jahan
(The History of Shah Jahan), which work he completed in 1659-60 AD.
Amal-i-Salih is an account of the life and reign of Shah Jahan. However, the work
also includes information on Shah Jahan’s predecessors (particularly Akbar and Jahangir) and a
compendium of biographies of the Shaikhs, poets, and other notables who were
contemporaries with Shah Jahan. Muhammad Saleh Kamboh died in 1674 AD.

Shaikh Inayat-Allah Kamboh

(1608-1671): Shaikh Inayat was a historian. He spent his early life in the
service of the Mughals and was a Mir
(General) of Shah Jahan, but later retired
from the world and lived as a recluse beside a shrine in Delhi. Inayat-Allah Kamboh wrote
several historical works, but it was his collection of tales entitled
Bahar-i-Danish (completed in 1651 AD), one of the most popular textbooks
of Persian, which had
brought him the most fame. He died in 1671 AD at Delhi. Historian Muhammad Saleh
Kamboh, younger brother of Inayat-Allah Kamboh, has praised
Bahar-i-Danish(Springtime of Knowledge) as a model of sophisticated
workmanship (See: Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, Vol. 2, 1660: 862). It became part of
the syllabi of the Persian schools because it is
mentioned in a manuscript-copy of Khulasatul Makatib, written in 1688.
Thus it was used in all the Persian schools, and by all educated men and women,
both Muslims and Hindus, were
acquainted with it in Mughal India. During British rule too,
according to the education reports, it was taught in nearly all the schools and
its style and idiom were regarded as the best models of
(Reid 1852: 54)[17].
Bahar-i Danis is a “collection of romantic and lascivious tales
dealing with the tricks employed by faithless wives to deceive their doting
, freely adapted from an earlier Indian source Shuka-Saptati
into Persian. His another important work is Takmilah-yi-Akbar-Namah which
is a continuation of Abu-al-Fazl’s Akbar-Namah as Kamboh narrates the
last four years of emperor Akbar’s reign.

Nawab Mohabbat Khan Kamboh

Nawab Mohabbat Khan was governor of Peshawar and was the grandson
of Nawab Dadan Khan, who remained for some time the governor of Lahore.

Mian Ahmed Khan Ban Bhabal Ban Jamal

Mian Jamal belonged to Jahangir’s era. He was a noted
scholar of Persian and Arabic languages.
Tarikh Khan Jani v Makhzan Afgfhani addresses him as Fazal-i-Rozgar
Janab Mian Ahmed Kamboh Dehlvi
(p 516). Around 1614 A.D, Jamal wrote a
famous book called Madan-e Akhbar-e Ahmadi in Persian language. The
author of Makhzan Afghani pays very glowing tributes to his book. The
original draft of the book is said to lie at British Museum London.

Khawaja Hasan Kamboh

Khawaja Hasan originally belonged to Multan but moved to Marehra (UP)
where he was conferred a big fief and the rulership of Marehra by Pathan emperor Sher
Shah Suri. (Ref: Kamboj Itihaas, (Draft), Roshan Din, Nizampur, p 225).

Muhammad Khan Kamboh

He was grandson of Khawaja Hasan and was the ruler of Marehra during Akbar’s reign. He was
the son-in-law of famous general of Akbar, Nawab Shahbaz Khan Kamboh.

Shaikh Abdul Jalil and Shaikh Ali Ahmed

They both belonged to Multan (Pakistan). At the end of nineteenth century,
they held the offices of Deputy Collectors in British rule.

Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan (Meerut)

He was the son of Nawab Mohabbat Khan. After Dara Shikoh was assassinated, he
joined Aurangzeb’s administration.
With competency and his loyalty to the Crown, he was given a mansab of 5000 and
was also awarded the title of Kheir Andesh Khan. He was also given an
award of 0.7 million Darham for his meritorious military service as Faujdar at
Etawa. During Bahadhur Shah’s reign, his mansab was upgraded to 6000 men.

Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan Sani

Was from Meerut line of Muslim Kamboh. His earlier name was Muhammad Massih.
He was the grandson of Kheir Andesh Khan. Under Aurangzeb, Kheir Andesh Khan
held a mansab of 1000 which was soon upgraded to 3000. He was also conferred the
title of Nek Andesh Khan. During reign of Bahadhur Shah, Kheir Andesh
Khan held a Mansab of 5000 which was later upgraded to 6000 men. He was also
conferred the title of Kheir Andesh Khan. Kheir Andesh Khan had
constructed one fort called Kheir Nagar at Bareilly. He also constructed one
Eid-gah and Mubark Mahil in Bareilly. The ruler of Bundhel Khand was also
reduced by this general. One of his sons also got the title of Nek Andesh
and was also awarded a Jagir of several villages near Bareilly.

Nawab General Kharyat Andesh Khan

Was the second son of Nawab Kheir Andesh Khan. He held a mansab of 5000 men.
He was the governor of Kashmir and had constructed the
Nawab Bazar there. One of his brothers also got the title of Kheir
Andesh Khan Salas
during the reign of emperor Ahmed Shah Durani. Nawab
Kharyat Andesh Khan also held the governorship of Kashmir.

General Afit Andesh Khan Kamboh

He was son of Kharyat Andesh Khan. In the final years of Mughal rule, he was
the Faujdar of Etawa and held a mansab of 2000 men.

Nawab Suvab Andesh Khan

was another Kamboh noble during the last days of Mughal empire. His grandson
Fateh Ali Khan rose to very prestigious position during British rule.

General Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan

He held a mansab of 1500 during emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani’s reign.

General Ramzan Ali

Was son of Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan. He also held a mansab of 1200
during emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani.

General Hakim Ghulam Ali Khan

held a mansab of 1000 during emperor Muhammad Shah. He also got the title of
Hussain Ali Khan.

Hakim Salamat Ali

was Royal Physician of emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani. Was conferred the
title of Hazakat Khan.

Hakim Hazur Ali

held a Jagir of seven village in Bijnor and Muradabad. He was Royal Physician
of Nawab Asaf Aldaulla.

Hakim Abu Ali Khan

was an Alam Fazal (scholar). He was Kotwal at Banda (Uttar Pradesh), then
Tehsildar and later became Advocate of Meerut.

Amjad Ali Khan

He was son of Hakim Abu Ali Khan. Was a Deputy Collector.

Hamad Ali Khan

He was son of Amjad Ali Khan. He did his Bar-at-Law from England in 1885 AD
and was a famous Advocate of Meerut.

Aga Ali Khan and Altaf Hussain

Were sons of Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan. They both were conferred titles
of Khan Bahadurs by British government. Were also honorary Magistrates of
Kanpur (See: Kamboj Itihas (Draft), Roshan Din Nizampur, p 226).

Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi alias Inayat Husain b. Fath Allah

Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi was a good scholar and writer. Wrote many books
including Silsilah-i-Aliyah, which treats of the history of the Muslim
Kambohs i.e the Shaikh Kambohs. The book contains supplements from Faid Ahmad b.
Dildar Ahmad (Meerut).

Hakim Dayam Khan and Hakim Hazulr Ali Khan

were nobles in the court of Nawab Asaf Aldaula of Oudh. Their descendants
currently live an Bijnor and Muradabad in UP.

Shaikh Tajjuddin Kamboh

Shaikh Tajjuddin Kamboh of Muradabad was first Tehsildar and then retired as
Deputy Collector.

Nawab Farhat Andesh Khan

He had participated in the 1819 British war against the Gurkhas and was
honored by the British Government. He was appointed Revenue Officer and was
awarded a large Jagir.

Mubarak Ali Khan

He was son of Nawab Farhat Andesh Khan. He was Deputy Collector and retired
in 1857. Later, he was made Honorary Magistrate of Meerut .

Ahmed Allah Khan

He was son of Mubarak Ali Khan. He was Special Honorary Magistrate in 1877
and was conferred the title of Nawab by the English Government.

Asadaulla Khan

He was son of Ahmed Allah Khan. He was an honorary Magistrate and was
conferred the titles of Khan Bahadur and later of Nawab, by Queen

Islam allah Khan

He was brother Asadaulla Khan and son of Ahmed Alla Khan. He was the first
Indian to occupy the position Deputy Superintendent of Police and was also
conferred the title of Nawab by the English Government.

Saif Allah Khan

He was the second brother of Asadaulla Khan. He retired as Deputy

Suvab Andesh Khan

of Meerut was awarded a Jagir by British Government of India. He was a very
much respected by the English.

Haji Mumtaz Ali

Haji Mumtaz Ali was son of Suvab Andesh Khan. He was a Ambassodar from Wajid
Ali Shah the ruler of Oudh to the court of English Governor General of India.
After English occupation of Etawa, he was appointed special Magistrate of

Muhammad Sadiq

He was son of Aji Mumtaz Ali Khan. Was Deputy Magistrate and Engineer. He was
also conferred the title of Khan Bahadhur by the English Government.
Later he became Chief Engineer of Hydrabad State.

Muhammad Ruh Allah

was second son of Haji Mumtaz Ali. He was also the Magistrate of Etawa and
was conferred the title of Khan Bahadhur by the British Government.

Hafaz Zahur Alslam, Muhammad Sahib Ali Khan, and Gaziuddin Hussain Khan

Hafaz Zahur Alslam, Muhammad Sahib Ali Khan, and Gaziuddin Hussain Khan from
this family were other important persons who held the offices of Deputy
Collectors in Uttar Pradesh.


Amam-ud-din held a Jagir of several villages in UP. He was Deputy Collector
of Muradabad.

Maulvi Mazhar Allah

Maulvi Mazhar Allah remained home Secretary of Nizam of State of

Altaf Ali Khan

Altaf Ali Khan was a Jagirdar and well known noble from Bareilly. He belonged
to the lineage of Nawab Kheir Andesh Khan Sani who held a 6000 mansab in the
reign of Aurangzeb and later that of
Bahadhur Shah. The annual income of his Jagir was over 80000 rupees in those

Izhar Hussain Kamboh

He was minister at the court of ruler of Oudh. Was knighted and ennobled
(Indo Aryans, Contribution Towards The Elucidation of Their ancient and
Mediaeval History, Vol II, 1969, p 188, fn, Rajendrar Lal Mitra)

Muzaffar Hussain Kamboh

He was also minister at the court of Oudh. Was also knighted and ennobled
(Ibid, p 188, fn, Rajendrar Lal Mitra)

Subhan Ali Khan Kamboh

Subhan Ali Khan was the Deputy Viceregent of Ghaziuddin Hyder, the ruler of Lucknow. Mirza
Ghalib received an invitation to a reception in audience by the ruler’s
viceregent and was received splendidly in Lucknow through the mediation of
Subhan Ali Khan Kamboh.

Ghulam Husain Kamboh

He was a noted scholar and historian of eighteenth century. He is the author
of a very useful book known as Tarikh-i-Banaras.

Nawab Waqarul Mulk Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh)

He was born in the Meerut in 24 March 1841 and came
of lineage of Shaikh Abdul Momin Kamboh who held the office of Dewan-e-Tun in Shah
Jahan’s reign. Vaqar Mulk did his engineering from Engineering College Roorki.
He served as a Law Secretary in the Government of Hyderabad Daccan for some time
and then joined Revenue Department. Later he was appointed Governor of the newly
established State “VRARANGLE” and with his untiring efforts, the state soon
became very prosperous. Vaqar Mulk received the title of Nawab Intezar
from the Government of Hydrabad. Then he was appointed Revenue
Secretary with the orders of Nizam of Daccan. He served as Secretary, Personal
Secretary & Advisor to the Prime Minister Nawab Bashiral Daulla. On December
9, 1890, he was awarded the title of Nawab Waqarul Mulk. On October 1892,
Nawab Waqarul Mulk joined M.A.O. college in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. In December
1906, the quartet Nawab Waqarul Mulk, Sir Agha Khan, Sir Shafi of Lahore and
Nawab Salimullah Khan of Dhaka organised a Mohammdan Educational Conference in Calcutta and
on the same occasion, they also launched a new party called All India Muslim
of which Nawab Waqarul Mulk became General Secretary. In 1907, he was
appointed Honorary Secretary of M.A.O. College. In the same year he resigned
from the Secretaryship of the All India Muslim League on health grounds. In
1908, the Government of India honored him with the title of Nawab. It was
the magnetising personality of Nawab Waqarul Mulk which had induced
Quaid-e-Azam to join the All India Muslim League which fact changed the
history of Indian subcontinent. The welcome address given by Nawab Waqarul Mulk
on the occasion is an important document for the Muslims. Due to bad health, Nawab
Waqarul Mulk gave up the Secretaryship of Aligarh in 1912 and after a prolonged
illness, he died on January 27, 1917.

Nawab Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmad

Was born in 1877 at Meerut in the renowned Zuberi
(Kamboh) family of India. He obtained his M.A. with distinction in Mathematics
in 1898 from Aligarh and D.Sc also with distinction from Allahabad University in 1901.
His brilliant academic career won him the scholarship to join the Cambridge
University, England in 1901 from where he
took his mathematical Tripos topping the University and became a Wrangler. He
obtained his Ph.D. degree in 1905 from Gottengen University in Germany. For further education
Dr Ziauddin joined Peris University and later Bologna University Italy and then on return to India,
he joined the alma mater as a Professor of Mathematics. It was due to his
untiring efforts that a Medical and Engineering colleges were founded and the
Aligarh Muslim College was converted to Aligarh Muslim University where Dr
Ziauddin Ahmad worked as a Lecturer, Professor, Principle, Pro-Vice-Chancelor,
Vice-Chancelor and Rector respectively. Dr Ziauddin Ahmad can be reckoned as
next to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the spread of education among the Muslims who owe
him a profound sense of gratitude. Dr Ziauddin played a dominant role in the
renaissance of Muslim education in the sub-continent after Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
and faithfully carried on the torch of education right to the rank and file of
the Muslims throughout the sub-continent. As a very faithful successor of Sir
Syed, he carried on the task of educating the people in the teeth of opposition
when he proceeded to England to receive the coveted Sir Issac Newton
Scholorship. In 1917 Dr. Ziauddin was also appointed member of the Calcutta
University Commission of which Sir Michael Saddler was the President. Dr
Ziauddin Ahmad rendered yeoman’s services to the Muslims of the sub-continent,
worked for their progress and welfare and devoted all his life to the
eradication of ignorance and illiteracy. He became member of Legislative
Assembly (MLA) of UP in 1991 and 1922. The second Muslim Kamboh Conference held
at Marehra (District Etha U.P) on 21st & 22nd April 1935 in Marison Islamia
School was presided over by Dr Ziauddin Ahmed. He was one of the earliest
members of the All-India Muslim League and stuck to the organization till the
end of his life. As desired by Quaid-e-Azam, Dr Ziauddin became
Parliamentary Secretary of the Muslim League in the Central Assembly of India in
1938. Dr Ziaddun remained member (M.P.) of Central Assembly of India from 1930
till 1947. In 1946, he was the chief whip of the Muslim League in the Central
Assembly. He was awarded the title of Sir by the Government of India. Dr
Ziauddin did an outstanding job in Budget-making for the Indian Railways and
later also worked with the Reserve Bank of India and he achieved the goals which
the Indian National
Congress had fought and lost. Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad was a trusted Lieutenant
and Associate of the Muslim pioneers like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Nawab Waqarul
Mulk Kamboh, Nawab Mohsinul Mulk, Sir Sultan Muhammad Khan Aga Khan 111, Syedna
Tahir Saifuddin, Quaid-e-Azam and Quaid-e-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan. After
partition, the family of Dr Sir Ziauddin moved to Pakistan. In August 1947, he
was appointed advisor to Government of Pakistan by Quaid-e-Azam Mr
Muhammad Ali Jinah. Dr Sir Ziauddin died on December 23, 1947 and in compliance
of his wishes, his body was brought to India and buried within the campus of
Aligarh Muslim University. Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad’s daughter Dr Mrs Aijaz Fatima
Tajammul, her husband Dr Tajammul Hussain, and Dr Asim Hussain have done a good
job by establishing in Pakistan the important institutions viz: Dr Sir
Ziauddin Memorial Hospital
, Dr Sir Ziauddin Post-Graduate Medical
and Dr Sir Ziauddin Medical College all running under Dr
Sir Ziauddin Ahmad University
. This was an excellent step to perpetuate the
memory of the great scholar and educationist of the Kamboj lineage. Dr Sir
Ziaddun was the first Kamboj to have become a member of Indian Parliament (M.P.)
and was also the first Kamboj to have been knighted as Sir [18].

Nawab Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan

He is another very important Kamboh hero of the pre-independence days.
Bar-at-law by training, Muhammad Yamin Khan belonged to Meerut and was a prominent legal
luminary, statesman, politician, parliamentarian and one of the senior most
members of the All India Muslim League. British Government recognized him for
his outstanding social and legal services and had knighted him by with the
titles of Sir and Nawab. A close confidant of Quaid-e-Azam, Sir Yamin
Khan was a member of the working committee of All India Muslim League. He also
remained Deputy President of the Indian legislative council. Sir Muhammad Yamin
Khan was also the President of the third Kamboh Conference held in
Bareilly in 1936. His brother Chaudhry Muhammad Yamin Khan was also a highly
educated person and a prominent Judge of pre-independence period. After
partition, the family had moved to Karachi, Pakistan where Sir Muhammad Yamin
Khan soon died. Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan was the second Kamboj member to be
knighted as Sir and also was the second Kamboj member of the Indian Parliament
(M.P.) [19].

Maulvi Bashiruddin

Maulvi Bashiruddin was a great educationist and scholar. He was a close
relative of Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad. He founded and owned the news paper called
Al-Bashir published from Etawah, and also founded The Islamic High
School, Etawah
. He was also the president of the first Muslim Kamboh
held at Meerut in December 1933.

Babu Maula Bakhash Kamboh

He joined the State of Malerkotla as a revenue officer, but was soon promoted
and worked as Justice, Collector, Accountant General and Police Chief. Later he
was also appointed Revenue Minister of the State. After partition and on the
merger of Malerkotla into “Patiala and East Punjab States Union” (PEPSU), Babu
Maula Bakhash was appointed its Administrator.

Hindu/Sikh Kamboj

Rai Bansi Das Kamboh

Bansi Das kamboh was minister in the jury of Darbar-i-Akbari and was very
close to Nawab General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh. Amir Alamara Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani
and his brother Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani who held mansabs of 5000 under Akbar
rose in rebellion against the Crown which move was crushed by Akbar with the
help of Shahbaz Khan. Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani was killed in the fight. General
Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani was arrested and was handed over to Shahbaz Khan Kamboh
and Rai Bansi Das Kamboh. According to Aina-i-Akbari of Abu-al-Fazal Alami,
General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani was executed by Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai
Bansi Das Kamboh in compliance of orders from emperor Akbar. But according to
Tarikh-i-Farishta (Part I, p 710), General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani,
being considered a threat to the empire, was executed without waiting orders
from the Emperor.

Secretary Harkaran Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh Multani

Secretary Harkaran Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh Multani (d 1631). Harkaran was son
of Mathura Das Kamboh and belonged to Multan which was a
great center of learning during Mughal reign. Harkaran Kamboh was
a noted scholar of Arabic and Persian languages. His
father was also a good poet of Persian language. Harkaran is best known for his
book Insa-yi-Harkaran written in Persian language (1625-1631) during the
last days of Jahangir and early days of Shah
Jehan. The work was compiled between 1625 AD and 1631 AD. It is stated that,
one day in the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan, Harkaran Kamboh
had sat at “the seat of Empire in the city of Matura” and devoted himself to
improving his skills as Munshi (Secretary). There followed a selection of
letters to different classes of people indicating how ‘princes write to
princes’, diplomatic (firmans, parwanahs), letters between notables and legal
documents including certificate for the sale of a slave girl etc. The result was
his famous Insa-yi-Harkaran in Persian language which soon became an
established model of excellence.[20]
Insa-yi-Harkaran is divided into seven sections and contains models of
letters and other documents relating to the State. Furthermore,
Insa-yi-Harkaran was also used as a model for diplomatic
correspondence with the native princes and potentates
by the British in India
and also as a model for school children learning Persian-letter writing in the
schools. Not much is known about his other works but Insa-yi- Harkaran
was indeed considered an excellent book till British rule. In the beginning of
his book, Harkaran introduces himself as Faqir Haqir Hechamdan Azhaf Man
Abdullah Al-Samad Harkaran Valad Mathuradas Kamboh Multani

Rai Jado Rai

He was a noble in the Mughal court during early days of Akbar and had wielded
considerable influence. He founded a village called Rai Pore.

Rai Narayan Das

He was son of Rai Jado Rai and also was a noble in the Mughal court during

Rai Bidi Chand

He was son of Rai Narayan Das and grandson of Rai Jado. He also wielded a
great influence in Jahangir’s court. He expanded the boundaries of his village
Rai Pur which he renamed as Raipore Bidi Chand. Rai Bidi Chand had two
sons viz Rai Dalpat and Rai Khemkaran and one daughter named Bibi Ramo. The
total Jagir in the name of Raipur Bid Chand at this time is said to be 52
villages. Rai Bidi Chand gave 8 villages of his Jagir in marriage to his
daughter Bibi Ramo.

Rai Dalpat Rai

He was an important noble in the Mughal court and held a mansab of 1000 men
during reign of Shah Jahan. Two Kamboj colonies in Lahore known as Kambohwaras
were founded by Rai Dalpat. He also founded another Kamboj colony in Sutar
Mandi. Rai Dalpat Rai had five sons viz Haspat Rai, Bhupat Rai, Gajpat Rai,
Raghupat Rai and Narpat Rai. Narpat Rai moved to Delhi and permanently settled
there. Rai Gajpat Rai was a high ranking military officer but had embraced Islam during
Aurangzeb’s rule. He was renamed as Abdul Mahbud Khan Sajani. He was also
conferred the title of Nawab. Following the example of Rai Gajpat Rai,
the entire Kamboj community of one of the two Kamboj colonies of Lahore also
embraced Islam.

Rai Raghupati Rai

was a great landlord from Nibber clan of the Kamboj
and was a dedicated Sikh of Guru-Ghar. He had two sons viz: Mool Chand and Amar
Chand. Mool Chand was a great warrior and had fought valiantly for the tenth
Lord in the battle of Nadaun on March 20, 1691 and achieved martyrdom
(Ref: Aina-i-Khemkaran; also: Guru Kian Sakhian, Prof Piara Singh Padam, Index).
Amar Chand took Amrit and became S. Amar Singh. He was a renowned Sikh warrior
from the Khemkaran and would wield in the battles a double-edged sword
(Kharasang or Khanda) said to be weighing over 20 Kilogram according to Sikh
chronicler Giani Gian Singh (Kharasang swa man ki, jang vich chalaai)[22].
After the martyrdom of Banda Singh Bahadhur, S Amar Singh succeeded him and
became the chief of the Bandai Khalsa [23].
In 1723 AD, a pernicious fight broke out between the Tat Khalsa and Bandai
Khalsa in the Prikarama of Golden Temple. S. Amar
Singh gave a memorable fight but finally achieved martyrdom after killing
numerous of his adversaries (Ibid). Bhai Mool Chand had a son called Lakha, who
took Amrit and became Bhai Lakha Singh. He was such an illustrious warrior that
he was nicknamed Lakha Singh Wad-Partapi (i.e. Lakha Singh, the great
& illustrious
). With the strength of his own arms, he had greatly
expanded the boundaries of Khemkaran. He was greatly respected by Maharaja Ranjit
Singh who would always address him as Baba Ji. During Ranjit Singh’s
rule, many Sikh Kambohs of Khemkaran held high military ranks in the regiment of
Dewan Sawan Mall (a Chopra Khatri) and later of his son Dewan Mool Raj, both
Governors of Multan. But numerous other
Kambohs from Punjab were, however, organized into a regiment under Akali Phula
Singh (a Kamboj Sikh warrior). After Akali’s martyrdom in 1823 AD, most of these
Kamboh soldiers are said to have joined the ranks of Dewan Sawan Mall’s regiment
and later that of Dewan Mool Raj.

Rai Khemkaran

He held the office of Dewan in the court of Shah Jahan. He founded important
town called Khemkaran near Kasur which was a very important
town before the partition. It now lies on the Indo-Pak border in District
Amritsar but has lost all its former prestige and glory. All the Hindu or Sikh
Kamboj of Khem Karan referenced above
belonged to Nibber clan of the Kamboj.

Bibi Ramo’s lineage

From the lineage of Bibi Ramo (Ram Kaur) came two illustrious personages viz.
Raja Sangat Rai and Raja Roshan Rai. Raja Roshan Rai was Dewan of
Karam-ud-Din, the Prime Minister of Mughal emperor Bahadhur Shah and
was conferred the title of Raja. Raja Sangat Rai was Dewan of the Governor of
Lahore and also held the title of Raja. They both belonged to the Nepal
or Naipal clan of the Kamboj which is the second most important clan of
the Khemkaran Kambojs.

Raja Bhim Singh Kamboh

He was ruler of Sarkap located south of Patti on river Satluj (in district Amritsar). He
was among the eight raja or rulers who were mobilised by Abadullah Samad Khan,
the Mughal Governor of Punjab against Sikh warrior Banda Singh Bahadhur (Ref:
Tarikh-I-Kambohan, Chaudhry Wahabuddin Kamboh; The Later Mughals, by William
Irvin). However, according to historian S Kirpal Singh Dardi, Bhim Singh Kamboh
was ruler of Sarkap located in Rawalpindi near Taxila.

The Kambohs

The Kambohs held Nakodar in Jullundur and Sohna in Gurgaon some
centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left in
Sohna show that they must have enjoyed considerable position [24].


  1. The Sikhs, A. H. Bingley, p 57

  • Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and north-West Frontier Province, Vol
    I, H. A. Rose; Aina-i-Akbari by Abu-L-Fazl Alami, Trans H. Blochman, p 122

  • The composition of the Mughal nobility, Concise Encyclopedia Britannica,

  • The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali

  • The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, p 21, M. Athar Ali

  • Cultural History of India , July, 1999 – Oxford University Press, USA, p 261,
    A. L. Basham

  • Aina-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochman, Part I, pp 436

  • Sayed Waris Shah

  • Kamboj Chetna Manch, 1993, Dr. (Prof) Jaspaul K Dhanju

  • These Kamboj People, 1979, p 196, K. S. Dardi.

  • Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh, Trans W. H. Lowe, II, pp 22, 124; Maasiru-ul-Umara, II,
    pp 540-41.
    DaradansahaKambojairajayatpakashasanih ||
    (verse from Mahabharat 2.27.22)
    ete desha udichyastu
    Kambojashchaiva Dardashchaiva Barbarashcha Angaukikah ||
    Chinashchaiva Tusharashcha Pahlavadhayata narah ||
    (Extracts from Kirfel’s Text of Bhuvanakosha countries)

  • Karana Rajapuram gatva Kamboja nirjita-stvaya, MBH VII.4.5 & MBH
    7.91.39-40; See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 132-135, Dr H. C.
    RayChaudhry. The Rajapura of MBH has been identified with Rajaori on the
    authority of Yuan Chawang

  • Tarikh-i-Kambohan, Chauhdri Wahhab ud-din Kamboh Amritsari, Nurpur( Layalpur),
    p 202

  • Aina-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazl Alami, Trans H. Blochman, 1965, Part I, p 347.

  • Muslim Civilizatiuon in India, New York, Columbia University Press, 1964 ,
    XII. Religion at Akbar’s Court, S. M. Ikram, (Ed) Ainslie T. Embree.

  • See: Language, Ideology and Power : Language-Learning among the Muslims
    of Pakistan and North India , p 127, Tariq Rahman (02 May, 2002) – Oxford
    University Press, USA

  • Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 347

  • Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 385

  • Empire and Information : Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication
    in India, 1780-1870 (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society),
    Cambridge University Press 2000, p 285, C. A. Bayly, Rajnarayan Chandavarkar,
    Gordon Johnson, and C.A. Bayly; also: Language, Ideology and Power:
    Language-Learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India, 2002 – Oxford
    University Press, USA, p 126, Tariq Rahman.

  • Aiana-i-Khemkaran, Lahore, 1925, p 283, S Partap Singh Nibber.

  • Panth Parkash, 1970, p 531-532, Giani Gian Singh

  • op cit, p 531, Giani Gian Singh.

  • Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and north-West Frontier Province, Vol
    II, pp 444-446, H. A. Rose; Punjab Castes, by Ibbeston, 1885, p 148
  • Books and Magazines

    • A Cultural History of India, A. L. Basham
    • Aina-i-Akbari by Abu Fazal Alami
    • Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan
    • The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, S Kipal Singh
    • Kamboj Itihas, 1972, H. S. Thind
    • A Draft on Kamboj Itihaas, Roshan Din Nizampur (Pakistan)
    • These Kamboj People, 1978, S Kirpal Singh
    • Indo-Aryan, Contribution Towards the Elucidation of Their Ancient and
      Mediaeval History, 1969, Rajindraraja Mitra
    • Silsila Aliya, Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi
    • Muntakhabu-i-Tawarikh, Al-Badauni, Trans Wolseley
    • Punjab Castes, 1970, Denzil Charles Ibbetson
    • Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab & N.W.F Province, H. A. Rose
    • Tarikh-i-Kambohan (Urdu), 1917, Amritsar, Chaudhry Wahabuddin