Dharmapala Kamboja - Last Ruler of Kamboja Pala Dynasty


Dharmapala Kamboja - Last Ruler of Kamboja Pala Dynasty

Dharmapala Kamboja was probably the last ruler of .[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] He ruled Dandabhukti-mandala in Vardhamana-bhukti in the first quarter of eleventh century and was contemporary of Rajendra Chola (reign 1012-1044) of Chola dynasty of Deccan.[8][9][10]

  • One king named Dharmapala ruling in Dandabhukti finds mention in the Tirmulai Inscription of Rajendra Chola which he issued in his 13th regnal year (about 1025 AD).[11][12][13][14][15] Scholars identify this Dharmapala of the Tirmulai Inscription with the Dharmapala of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty ruling in Dandabhukti in the first quarter of the 11th century. It has also been suggested that when threatened by Pala rulers of Bengal, Dharmapala, this last ruler of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal, might have sought help from Rajendra Chola of the Chola Dynasty.[16][17]
  • Chidambaram Inscription Tamil language, found in Chidambaram refers to one Kamboja (Kambosha-raja) ruler who made a beautiful stone gift as a curio (katchi) to (Kulotunga) Rajendrasoladevar (i.e. Rajendra Chola) which with latter’s permission, was embedded in front row of the edirambalam of the Nataraja temple:
Rajendra sola devarku Kambosha-rajan katchiyaaga kattina kallu, idu
udaiyar rajendra sola devar tiruvaai molindaruli udaiyar
tiruchrirramblam udaiyar koyilil mun vaittadu indakkallu tiruvedir
ambalattu tiru kkai sarattil tiru mum pattikku melai ppattiyille vaittadu'.[18]
Though K. A. Nilakanta Sastri links Kamboja king of Chidambram inscription to Cambodia (Kampuchea) [19] which however seems to be far-fetched, many other scholars say that Kamboja of Chidambram inscriptions is this Dharampala of Kamboj lineage who was ruling in Dandbhukti-mandala of west Bengal during early 11th century and was therefore a contemporary of Rajendra Chola.[20][21][22][23][24]
  • Karandai (Tanjavur or Tanjore) plates (v.48) (Sanggham Copper Plate Charter) of about 1020 issued by Rajendra Chola (c. 1012 - 1044) in the eighth year of his reign states that a Kamboja king solicited friendship of Rajendra Chola by sending him for the protection of his royalty (atmalaksmim) a victorious war-chariot with which he (Kamboja king) had defeated the armies which opposed him in battle. The inscription issued in the eighth year of his reign (1020) contains a significant verse in its separate Sanskrit section and it refers to one Kamboja Raja:
Kamboja-rajo ripu-raja sena-jaitrena yen= ajayad=ahaveshu |
tarn prahinot prartthita-mitra-bhavo yennai ratham ||.[25]
The above inscription says that, in order to seek Chola’s friendship, Kamboja king presented to Rajendra Chola a chariot with which he (Kamboja raja) had won his enemies in many battles.[26][27] The Kamboja king mentioned in the Karandai (Tanjavur or Tanjore) plates (v.48) is also believed to be Dharmapala of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal. There can also be doubt that Dharmapala of the Tirumalai Inscription of king Rajendra Chola is the Kamboja king Dharmapala of Dandabhukti who was a scion of the Kamboja dynasty to which Nayapalaa, Narayanapala and Rajyapala of the Irda Copper Plate grant & the Kalanda Copper Plate grant belonged.[28][29][30][31][32][33] He was ruling in Dandabhukti-mandala at this time and therefore, was a contemporary of Rajendra Chola. When threatened by illustrious Pala ruler Mahpala-I, this Kamboja Dharmapala appears to have sought friendship and help with Rajendra Chola against Pala ruler by forming an alliance with Rajendra Chola and presenting him a valuable Ratha (Chariot) as a token of friendship. As a consequence, Rajendra Chola led his victorious northern expedition to the banks of the Ganges and also met Dharmapala in Dandabhukti. This fact demonstrates Kamboja rulers' weakened position and Rajendra Chola’s political influence in Bengal and Bangladesh. (Some scholars however, think that “Kamboja king sent his ratha as a friendly present to Rajendra Chola to avoid war with the latter" [34]).

References

  1. ? The Dacca University Studies - 1935, p 133, University of Dacca
  2. ? The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 508 India; History of Bengal, I, p 139
  3. ? Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs, 1942, p 380, Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India).
  4. ? The People and Culture of Bengal, a Study in Origins, 2002, p 562, Annapurna Chattopadhyaya.
  5. ? Ancient India, History and Archaeology, 1994, p 53, Dilip Kumar Ganguly.
  6. ? Journal of the Varendra Research Museum, p 109, Varendra Research Museum - Bangladesh.
  7. ? The Early Rulers of Khajur?ho, 1877, p 63, Sisirkumar Mitra; Abhinandana-Bh?rat?: Professor Krishna Kanta Handiqui Felicitation Volume, 1982, p 110, Krishna Kanta Handiqui, Pratap Chandra Choudhury, Biswanarayan Shastri; Cf: J.O.R., XIX, p 151.
  8. ? See refs: The Early Rulers of Khajur?ho, 1977, p 63, Sisirkumar Mitra
  9. ? The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 508.
  10. ? The Early History of Bengal: From the Earliest Times to the Muslim Conquest, 1939, p 82, Pramode Lal. Paul.
  11. ? Journal of the Varendra Research Museum, 1972, p 109, Varendra Research Museum, Varendra Research Museum - Bangladesh.
  12. ? The Orissa Historical Research Journal, 1975, p 114, Kedarnath Mahapatra, Orissa (India) Superintendent, Research and Museum, Orissa State Museum - Orissa (India).
  13. ? West Bengal District Gazetteers, 1965, p 73, Editor Jatindra Chandra Sengupta.
  14. ? Historical geography and dynastic history of Orissa, up to the rise of the imperial Ga?gas, 1975, p 66, Dilip Kumar Ganguly.
  15. ? Cf: The Early Rulers of Khajur?ho, 1958, p 62-63, Sisirkumar Mitra; Ancient Indian History and Civilization, 1999, p 281, Sailendra Nath Sen.
  16. ? Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs., 1942, p 399, Benoychandra Sen.
  17. ? Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  18. ? Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, pp 105-106, (Editor) E. Hultsch; A Comprehensive History of India, 1957, p 39, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress; History of Tamilnad, 1978, p 222, N. Subrahmanian - Tamil Nadu (India); Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Kamboja Through the Ages, 2005, p 13, Kirpal Singh
  19. ? A Comprehensive History of India, 1957, p 15, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress - India.
  20. ? Indian Historical Quarterly, 1939, Item notes: v.15 1939, p 508, Published by Calcutta Oriental Press, India .
  21. ? Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs, 1942, pp 380, 399, Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India).
  22. ? History of Bengal, Vol I, p 139, Edi. R. C. Majumdar, Reprint, Delhi, B.R. Publishing, 2003, ISBN 81-7646-238-1.
  23. ? Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  24. ? cf: Decline of kingdom of Magdha, p 413, f.n. 2; Sinha B. P; Cf: Journal of Oriental Research, Madras (JOR), XIX, pp. 151.
  25. ? From Sanskrit section of Sangham Copper Plate Charter, See: Journal of Indian History: Golden Jubilee Volume, 1973, p 114, T. K. Ravindran, Trivandrum, India (City). University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Kerala; The Journal of Oriental Research, 1952, p 151, Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Indo-Aryan philology.
  26. ? Journal of Indian History, 1973, p 114, T. K. Ravindram, University of Kerala, Department of History.
  27. ? .The C?las, 1955, p 220, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, - Chola (Indic people); Encyclopaedia of Tamil literature, 1990, p 68, Shu Hikosaka, Institute of Asian Studies (Madras, India), G. John Samuel; A Comprehensive History of India, 1957, p 15, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress; See also: The Journal of Oriental Research, 1952, p 151, Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Indo-Aryan philology.
  28. ? The Orissa Historical Research Journal, 1975, p 114, Kedarnath Mahapatra, Orissa (India) Superintendent, Research and Museum, Orissa State Museum - Orissa (India).
  29. ? West Bengal District Gazetteers, 1985, p 87, Editor Jatindra Chandra Sengupta; Also see: West Bengal District Gazetteers, 1965, p 63, West Bengal (India), Jatindra Chandra Sengupta - West Bengal (India) - 1965.
  30. ? Indian Historical Quarterly, 1939, Item notes: v.15 1939, p 508, Published by Calcutta Oriental Press, India.
  31. ? Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs, 1942, pp 380, 399, Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India).
  32. ? History of Bengal, Vol I, p 139, Edi. R. C. Majumdar, Reprint, Delhi, B.R. Publishing, 2003, ISBN 81-7646-238-1.
  33. ? Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Dacca University Studies - 1935, p 133, University of Dacca; Ancient India, History and Archaeology, 1994, p 53, Dilip Kumar Ganguly; Abhinandana-Bh?rat?: Professor Krishna Kanta Handiqui Felicitation Volume, 1982, p 110, Krishna Kanta Handiqui, Pratap Chandra Choudhury, Biswanarayan Shastri; cf: Decline of kingdom of Magdha, p 413, f.n. 2; Sinha B. P; Cf: Journal of Oriental Research, Madras (JOR), XIX, pp. 151.
  34. ? Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress, 1953, p 10, Indian Science Congress Association, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal).

See also

 

Deepak Kamboj

Deepak Kamboj started and conceptualized the powerful interactive platform - KambojSociety.com in September 2002, which today is the biggest and most popular online community portal for Kambojas in the world. He was inspired by the social and community work carried out by his father Shri Nanak Chand Kamboj. He has done research on the history, social aspects, political growth and economical situation of the Kamboj community. Deepak Kamboj is an author of various articles about the history of Kamboj community and people.